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/ full?

Chris Parker-4
I have filled up the / partition.  a copy of fstab is below:

$/ df -h
Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/hda1             250M  249M     0 100% /
tmpfs                 249M     0  249M   0% /dev/shm
/dev/hda9              66G  5.2G   58G   9% /home
/dev/hda8             361M  8.1M  334M   3% /tmp
/dev/hda5             4.6G  2.2G  2.3G  50% /usr
/dev/hda6             2.8G  377M  2.3G  15% /var
tmpfs                 249M  112K  249M   1% /dev




# /etc/fstab: static file system information.
#
# <file system> <mount point>   <type>  <options>       <dump>  <pass>
proc            /proc           proc    defaults        0       0
/dev/hda1       /               ext3    defaults,errors=remount-ro 0       1
/dev/hda9       /home           ext3    defaults        0       2
/dev/hda8       /tmp            ext3    defaults        0       2
/dev/hda5       /usr            ext3    defaults        0       2
/dev/hda6       /var            ext3    defaults        0       2
/dev/hda7       none            swap    sw              0       0
/dev/hdc        /media/cdrom0   iso9660 ro,user,noauto  0       0
/dev/fd0        /media/floppy0  auto    rw,user,noauto  0       0
/dev/sdb1       /mnt/digipad    vfat    rw,user,noauto  0       0

Is it possible to symlink /bin, /etc/, + others into the /home
partition? or just use a partitioner to resize the /home?  Which has the
least impact on the filesystem?

thanks in advance


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Re: / full?

Roberto C. Sanchez
Chris Parker wrote:
>
> Is it possible to symlink /bin, /etc/, + others into the /home
> partition? or just use a partitioner to resize the /home?  Which has the
> least impact on the filesystem?
>
Resize.  According to the FHS, /bin, /lib, /etc (and probably others)
*must* reside on the same physical device as /.  If not, when / is
mounted as the first FS, how will the system even startup (if /bin is
not on /, then the init program will not be found) or mount other
filesystems (if /etc is not there then the fstab can't be read).
Anyhow, if I were you, I would switch to LVM.  It is very nice and
conventient.  Though, unless you have a way getting an image of your
system to another machine (I recommend systemimager) it could be quite
tricky.

-Roberto

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http://familiasanchez.net/~roberto

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Re: / full?

Kent West
In reply to this post by Chris Parker-4
Chris Parker wrote:
> I have filled up the / partition.  a copy of fstab is below:
>
> $/ df -h
> Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
> /dev/hda1             250M  249M     0 100% /
<snip>
> # /etc/fstab: static file system information.
> proc            /proc           proc    defaults        0       0
> /dev/hda1       /               ext3    defaults,errors=remount-ro
> 0       1
> /dev/hda9       /home           ext3    defaults        0       2
<snip>
> Is it possible to symlink /bin, /etc/, + others into the /home
> partition? or just use a partitioner to resize the /home?  Which has
> the least impact on the filesystem?
>
Resizing /home implies resizing / also; I don't know if any of the Linux
partitioning tools will do non-destructive resizing.

Another option would be to clean whatever is eating up space on /, such
as old kernels and the associated /lib/modules directory.

--
Kent



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Re: / full?

Ron Johnson
On Mon, 2006-04-10 at 18:01 -0500, Kent West wrote:

> Chris Parker wrote:
> > I have filled up the / partition.  a copy of fstab is below:
> >
> > $/ df -h
> > Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
> > /dev/hda1             250M  249M     0 100% /
> <snip>
> > # /etc/fstab: static file system information.
> > proc            /proc           proc    defaults        0       0
> > /dev/hda1       /               ext3    defaults,errors=remount-ro
> > 0       1
> > /dev/hda9       /home           ext3    defaults        0       2
> <snip>
> > Is it possible to symlink /bin, /etc/, + others into the /home
> > partition? or just use a partitioner to resize the /home?  Which has
> > the least impact on the filesystem?
> >
> Resizing /home implies resizing / also; I don't know if any of the Linux
> partitioning tools will do non-destructive resizing.
>
> Another option would be to clean whatever is eating up space on /, such
> as old kernels and the associated /lib/modules directory.

Or reinstall, merging /usr and /var into /.

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Re: / full?

Andrew Sackville-West
In reply to this post by Chris Parker-4
On Mon, Apr 10, 2006 at 02:16:25PM -0400, Chris Parker wrote:

> I have filled up the / partition.  a copy of fstab is below:
>
> $/ df -h
> Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
> /dev/hda1             250M  249M     0 100% /
> tmpfs                 249M     0  249M   0% /dev/shm
> /dev/hda9              66G  5.2G   58G   9% /home
> /dev/hda8             361M  8.1M  334M   3% /tmp
> /dev/hda5             4.6G  2.2G  2.3G  50% /usr
> /dev/hda6             2.8G  377M  2.3G  15% /var
> tmpfs                 249M  112K  249M   1% /dev
>
>
>
>
> # /etc/fstab: static file system information.
> #
> # <file system> <mount point>   <type>  <options>       <dump>  <pass>
> proc            /proc           proc    defaults        0       0
> /dev/hda1       /               ext3    defaults,errors=remount-ro 0       1
> /dev/hda9       /home           ext3    defaults        0       2
> /dev/hda8       /tmp            ext3    defaults        0       2
> /dev/hda5       /usr            ext3    defaults        0       2
> /dev/hda6       /var            ext3    defaults        0       2
> /dev/hda7       none            swap    sw              0       0
> /dev/hdc        /media/cdrom0   iso9660 ro,user,noauto  0       0
> /dev/fd0        /media/floppy0  auto    rw,user,noauto  0       0
> /dev/sdb1       /mnt/digipad    vfat    rw,user,noauto  0       0
>
> Is it possible to symlink /bin, /etc/, + others into the /home
> partition? or just use a partitioner to resize the /home?  Which has the
> least impact on the filesystem?
Others have already addressed your options well enough. I think you need
to fogure out, though, why this happened and address that issue. You
already have the worst offenders (/var, /tmp, /home, and /usr) on
another partition, so what is eating up your / space? Do you have some
other directory at the root level that you are storing stuff in, for
example?  Personally, I find, with a similar setup to yours, that my /
doesn't move around much at all (though with a quick check I see that
its over 250 megs right now, so I don't think you're out of line with
resizing it.).

A

>
> thanks in advance
>
>
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Re: / full?

Adam Collins-2
In reply to this post by Chris Parker-4
> I have filled up the / partition.  a copy of fstab is below:
>
> $/ df -h
> Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
> /dev/hda1             250M  249M     0 100% /
> tmpfs                 249M     0  249M   0% /dev/shm
> /dev/hda9              66G  5.2G   58G   9% /home
> /dev/hda8             361M  8.1M  334M   3% /tmp
> /dev/hda5             4.6G  2.2G  2.3G  50% /usr
> /dev/hda6             2.8G  377M  2.3G  15% /var
> tmpfs                 249M  112K  249M   1% /dev
>
>
>
>
> # /etc/fstab: static file system information.
> #
> # <file system> <mount point>   <type>  <options>       <dump>  <pass>
> proc            /proc           proc    defaults        0       0
> /dev/hda1       /               ext3    defaults,errors=remount-ro 0    
>  1 /dev/hda9       /home           ext3    defaults        0       2
> /dev/hda8       /tmp            ext3    defaults        0       2
> /dev/hda5       /usr            ext3    defaults        0       2
> /dev/hda6       /var            ext3    defaults        0       2
> /dev/hda7       none            swap    sw              0       0
> /dev/hdc        /media/cdrom0   iso9660 ro,user,noauto  0       0
> /dev/fd0        /media/floppy0  auto    rw,user,noauto  0       0
> /dev/sdb1       /mnt/digipad    vfat    rw,user,noauto  0       0
>
> Is it possible to symlink /bin, /etc/, + others into the /home
> partition? or just use a partitioner to resize the /home?  Which has the
> least impact on the filesystem?
>
> thanks in advance

This little gem might help you diagnose your space issues from the command
line, as it's saved me many times:

# du -m -x --max-depth=1 / | sort -n

You'll get a listing of top level directories disk usage (in MB) for the /
filesystem only, sorted by size in ascending order.  You can then drill
down into other directories to see what's hogging your disk space.

You're better off IMHO being efficient with your / filesystem rather than
trying to symlink a directories this way and that.  You should be able to
get your / filesystem to under 200MB unless you're storing something in
there on purpose, or at least move the offending files somewhere else.

Adam

--
"Pulling together is the aim of despotism and tyranny.
 Free men pull in all kinds of directions."
                           Terry Pratchett, The Truth


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Re: / full?

Alvin Oga
In reply to this post by Andrew Sackville-West


On Mon, 10 Apr 2006, Andrew Sackville-West wrote:

> On Mon, Apr 10, 2006 at 02:16:25PM -0400, Chris Parker wrote:
> > I have filled up the / partition.  a copy of fstab is below:
> >
> > $/ df -h
> > Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
> > /dev/hda1             250M  249M     0 100% /

i think you have extra stuff in /srv or /selinux  or /otherdirectories
including stuff in /mnt or /media even if nothing is mounted there

        - move all your well tree stuff in /home/srv/web-stuff

/bin /lib /sbin /etc is NOT the problem

you can symlink /bin and other directories to /someplace-else
but you have to know what you're doing ... ie.. you have to change
all of the startup scripts and take out all the hardcoded paths to /bin
and /etc and /lib etc..etc
        - it'd probably be too much work for most folks

250M for / is 2x more space than you need and is a good config for /

c ya
alvin

> > Is it possible to symlink /bin, /etc/, + others into the /home
> > partition? or just use a partitioner to resize the /home?  Which has the
> > least impact on the filesystem?
>
> Others have already addressed your options well enough.


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RE: / full?

Chris Parker
 

> -----Original Message-----
> From: Alvin Oga [mailto:[hidden email]]
> Sent: Monday, April 10, 2006 9:20 PM
> To: Andrew Sackville-West
> Cc: [hidden email]
> Subject: Re: / full?
>
>
>
> On Mon, 10 Apr 2006, Andrew Sackville-West wrote:
>
> > On Mon, Apr 10, 2006 at 02:16:25PM -0400, Chris Parker wrote:
> > > I have filled up the / partition.  a copy of fstab is below:
> > >
> > > $/ df -h
> > > Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
> > > /dev/hda1             250M  249M     0 100% /
>
> i think you have extra stuff in /srv or /selinux  or
> /otherdirectories including stuff in /mnt or /media even if
> nothing is mounted there
>
> - move all your well tree stuff in /home/srv/web-stuff
>
> /bin /lib /sbin /etc is NOT the problem
>
> you can symlink /bin and other directories to /someplace-else
> but you have to know what you're doing ... ie.. you have to
> change all of the startup scripts and take out all the
> hardcoded paths to /bin and /etc and /lib etc..etc
> - it'd probably be too much work for most folks
>
> 250M for / is 2x more space than you need and is a good config for /
>
> c ya
> alvin
>
> > > Is it possible to symlink /bin, /etc/, + others into the /home
> > > partition? or just use a partitioner to resize the /home?
>  Which has
> > > the least impact on the filesystem?
> >
> > Others have already addressed your options well enough.

I thought getting rid of the old kernels and the modules was correct.  I ll
delete those tommorrow.  Thanks again for the help.

Thanks
chris

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Re: / full?

Gene Wainwright
In reply to this post by Alvin Oga
Alvin Oga wrote:

>On Mon, 10 Apr 2006, Andrew Sackville-West wrote:
>
>  
>
>>On Mon, Apr 10, 2006 at 02:16:25PM -0400, Chris Parker wrote:
>>    
>>
>>>I have filled up the / partition.  a copy of fstab is below:
>>>
>>>$/ df -h
>>>Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
>>>/dev/hda1             250M  249M     0 100% /
>>>      
>>>
>
>i think you have extra stuff in /srv or /selinux  or /otherdirectories
>including stuff in /mnt or /media even if nothing is mounted there
>
> - move all your well tree stuff in /home/srv/web-stuff
>
>/bin /lib /sbin /etc is NOT the problem
>
>you can symlink /bin and other directories to /someplace-else
>but you have to know what you're doing ... ie.. you have to change
>all of the startup scripts and take out all the hardcoded paths to /bin
>and /etc and /lib etc..etc
> - it'd probably be too much work for most folks
>
>250M for / is 2x more space than you need and is a good config for /
>
>c ya
>alvin
>
>  
>
>>>Is it possible to symlink /bin, /etc/, + others into the /home
>>>partition? or just use a partitioner to resize the /home?  Which has the
>>>least impact on the filesystem?
>>>      
>>>
>>Others have already addressed your options well enough.
>>    
>>
>
>
>  
>
You can also try the command: apt-get clean
That always cleans up my root partition....


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Re: / full?

David E. Fox-3
In reply to this post by Chris Parker-4
On Mon, 10 Apr 2006 14:16:25 -0400
Chris Parker <[hidden email]> wrote:

> I have filled up the / partition.  a copy of fstab is below:
>
> $/ df -h
> Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
> /dev/hda1             250M  249M     0 100% /

Ow. First I'd check places like /var/log, or /var/cache/apt/archives,
possibly one or the other places are filling up with log or other info.

> Is it possible to symlink /bin, /etc/, + others into the /home
> partition? or just use a partitioner to resize the /home?  Which has the

It probably is, but the downside is that you lose the 'separateness' of
the home partition (or vice versa, keeping the OS separate from your
data). I wouldn't recommend it.

Resizing /home won't help, since it's mounted on another partition.
What's in /, is everything that *isn't* mounted someplace else (i.e,
if /tmp or /home is on another partition, it doesn't count against
space used in /', even though it's mounted as part of /.)

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Re: / full?

David E. Fox-3
In reply to this post by Andrew Sackville-West
On Mon, 10 Apr 2006 17:19:37 -0700
Andrew Sackville-West <[hidden email]> wrote:


> Others have already addressed your options well enough. I think you need
> to fogure out, though, why this happened and address that issue. You
> already have the worst offenders (/var, /tmp, /home, and /usr) on

Hmm. I seem to have missed that part.

The OP may have to resize, if / is just *too* small to be useful.

> A


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Re: / full?

Cat-4
In reply to this post by Chris Parker-4
On Mon, Apr 10, 2006 at 02:16:25PM -0400, Chris Parker wrote:
> I have filled up the / partition.  a copy of fstab is below:

Without actually knowing what you did to full up / I recommend two
things:

1. clean out /root if you're using it and don't use it again for
anything but the bare minimum. it's not meant for that.
2. uninstall any kernels you do not use and do not plan to use.

Even on my desktop system / only ever filled upto around 30meg. I roll
my own kernels so if you use the denian ones add another 40meg of
modules for each kernel you deem necessary. Generally, kernel-wise, 2
ought to do. Your current kernel and last known stable. When upgrading
you'll get a 3rd for a short while so leave enough room for that (say
50meg to be sure).

> $/ df -h
> Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
> /dev/hda1             250M  249M     0 100% /

250M root partition is more then ample. You're definately doing
something wrong so the best fix is behaviour modification. :)

> /dev/hda9              66G  5.2G   58G   9% /home
> /dev/hda8             361M  8.1M  334M   3% /tmp
> /dev/hda5             4.6G  2.2G  2.3G  50% /usr
> /dev/hda6             2.8G  377M  2.3G  15% /var

Good move in splitting these out IMO. Sizes are good (caveat: I don't
know what you really use this box for but in general, they're good :).

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Re: / full?

Joris Patroons
In reply to this post by Chris Parker-4
On Mon, 2006-04-10 at 14:16 -0400, Chris Parker wrote:
> I have filled up the / partition.  a copy of fstab is below:
>
> $/ df -h
> Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
> /dev/hda1             250M  249M     0 100% /
<snip>

as some others pointed out, it's rather strange to fill that amount of
space on /, if you have {home,usr,var,tmp} mounted from other
partitions. if you can't find the culprit files in /opt or /root, they
may exist in /var or /tmp *on your root partition*. to check this:

$ sudo mkdir /mnt/root
$ mount --bind / /mnt/root
$ ls -la /mnt/root/{home,usr,var,tmp}

if there is anything in there, you should probably (re)move it
good luck,

--
Joris


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RE: / full?

Chris Parker
In reply to this post by Adam Collins-2
 

> -----Original Message-----
> From: Adam Collins [mailto:[hidden email]]
> Sent: Monday, April 10, 2006 8:59 PM
> To: [hidden email]
> Subject: Re: / full?
>
> > I have filled up the / partition.  a copy of fstab is below:
> >
> > $/ df -h
> > Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
> > /dev/hda1             250M  249M     0 100% /
> > tmpfs                 249M     0  249M   0% /dev/shm
> > /dev/hda9              66G  5.2G   58G   9% /home
> > /dev/hda8             361M  8.1M  334M   3% /tmp
> > /dev/hda5             4.6G  2.2G  2.3G  50% /usr
> > /dev/hda6             2.8G  377M  2.3G  15% /var
> > tmpfs                 249M  112K  249M   1% /dev
> >
> >
> >
> >
> > # /etc/fstab: static file system information.
> > #
> > # <file system> <mount point>   <type>  <options>      
> <dump>  <pass>
> > proc            /proc           proc    defaults        0       0
> > /dev/hda1       /               ext3    
> defaults,errors=remount-ro 0    
> >  1 /dev/hda9       /home           ext3    defaults        0       2
> > /dev/hda8       /tmp            ext3    defaults        0       2
> > /dev/hda5       /usr            ext3    defaults        0       2
> > /dev/hda6       /var            ext3    defaults        0       2
> > /dev/hda7       none            swap    sw              0       0
> > /dev/hdc        /media/cdrom0   iso9660 ro,user,noauto  0       0
> > /dev/fd0        /media/floppy0  auto    rw,user,noauto  0       0
> > /dev/sdb1       /mnt/digipad    vfat    rw,user,noauto  0       0
> >
> > Is it possible to symlink /bin, /etc/, + others into the /home
> > partition? or just use a partitioner to resize the /home?  
> Which has
> > the least impact on the filesystem?
> >
> > thanks in advance
>
> This little gem might help you diagnose your space issues
> from the command line, as it's saved me many times:
>
> # du -m -x --max-depth=1 / | sort -n
>
> You'll get a listing of top level directories disk usage (in
> MB) for the / filesystem only, sorted by size in ascending
> order.  You can then drill down into other directories to see
> what's hogging your disk space.
>
> You're better off IMHO being efficient with your / filesystem
> rather than trying to symlink a directories this way and
> that.  You should be able to get your / filesystem to under
> 200MB unless you're storing something in there on purpose, or
> at least move the offending files somewhere else.
>
> Adam
>
> --
> "Pulling together is the aim of despotism and tyranny.
>  Free men pull in all kinds of directions."
>                            Terry Pratchett, The Truth
>
I have done an apt-get clean.  The 249m used out of 250m was after that.  I
know what it is that takes up all the extra space.  Darn left over kernels
and modules.  The machine is a desktop based machine.  I am in the process
of converting the small office over to Debian.  The owner's love it.  It's
extremely stable except for my small admin errors.

Thanks for the assistance.
Chris Parker
www.countyfloors.com

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Re: / full?

Andrei POPESCU-2
In reply to this post by Gene Wainwright
On Mon, 10 Apr 2006 21:38:30 -0700
Gene Wainwright <[hidden email]> wrote:

> You can also try the command: apt-get clean
> That always cleans up my root partition....

AFAIK that cleans /var which in this case is on a different partition.

Andrei
--
If you can't explain it simply, you don't understand it well enough.
(Albert Einstein)

--
If you can't explain it simply, you don't understand it well enough.
(Albert Einstein)


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Re: / full?

Andrei POPESCU-2
In reply to this post by Kent West
On Mon, 10 Apr 2006 18:01:00 -0500
Kent West <[hidden email]> wrote:

> Resizing /home implies resizing / also; I don't know if any of the Linux
> partitioning tools will do non-destructive resizing.

AFAIK, parted can do that

Andrei
--
If you can't explain it simply, you don't understand it well enough.
(Albert Einstein)


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RE: / full?

Chris Parker
In reply to this post by Joris Patroons
 

> -----Original Message-----
> From: Joris [mailto:[hidden email]]
> Sent: Tuesday, April 11, 2006 6:59 AM
> To: [hidden email]
> Subject: Re: / full?
>
> On Mon, 2006-04-10 at 14:16 -0400, Chris Parker wrote:
> > I have filled up the / partition.  a copy of fstab is below:
> >
> > $/ df -h
> > Filesystem            Size  Used Avail Use% Mounted on
> > /dev/hda1             250M  249M     0 100% /
> <snip>
>
> as some others pointed out, it's rather strange to fill that
> amount of space on /, if you have {home,usr,var,tmp} mounted
> from other partitions. if you can't find the culprit files in
> /opt or /root, they may exist in /var or /tmp *on your root
> partition*. to check this:
>
> $ sudo mkdir /mnt/root
> $ mount --bind / /mnt/root
> $ ls -la /mnt/root/{home,usr,var,tmp}
>
> if there is anything in there, you should probably (re)move
> it good luck,
>
> --
> Joris

It's all fixed now.  I had a few extra kernels in /boot plus their modules
in /lib.  Its now down to 50 +-mb in /.  Thanks again for the help and
pointers.

Chris

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Re: / full?

Michael M.-3
In reply to this post by Adam Collins-2
Adam Collins wrote:

>
> This little gem might help you diagnose your space issues from the command
> line, as it's saved me many times:
>
> # du -m -x --max-depth=1 / | sort -n
>
> You'll get a listing of top level directories disk usage (in MB) for the /
> filesystem only, sorted by size in ascending order.  You can then drill
> down into other directories to see what's hogging your disk space.
>
>  
There's also Baobab, a nifty GTK+ Gnome app that's basically a graphical du:
http://www.marzocca.net/linux/baobab.html

Actually, there are bunch of GUI versions of du.  I use du for a quick
check when something looks a little out-of-whack, but Baobab has some
nice value-added features and pretty colors that make it pleasant to go
exploring with.

Maybe it helps if you're high. :-)

--
Michael M. ++ Portland, OR ++ USA
"No live organism can continue for long to exist sanely under conditions of absolute reality; even larks and katydids are supposed, by some, to dream." --S. Jackson


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Re: / full?

Andrei POPESCU-2
In reply to this post by Kent West
On Mon, 10 Apr 2006 18:01:00 -0500
Kent West <[hidden email]> wrote:

> Resizing /home implies resizing / also; I don't know if any of the Linux
> partitioning tools will do non-destructive resizing.

parted can do that

Andrei
--
If you can't explain it simply, you don't understand it well enough.
(Albert Einstein)


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